Yes, Talstar P (Talstar One) is labeled for aphids and can safely be applied to plants. Y
Most insecticides like Talstar P and herbicides such as 2,4-D, are able to be tank mixed together, just make sure you follow each product label instructions for "tank mixing" instructions.
Our most popular general use product is called Talstar. It is widely used by pest control companies because it is labeled for almost every insect you could have a problem with and you can use it outside the home as well as inside, it is odorless and very safe for use around children and pets. It is a liquid concentrate that you mix with water in a one gallon hand pump sprayer. It will last for 60 to 90 days outside in between treatments. It is also labeled for lawn and ornamental use, and can be used on trees, plants, bushes and shrubs for all sorts of ornamental pests including Japanese beetles, mosquitoes, and other leaf eating pests. Talstar is also available in a granule formula called Talstar PL if you prefer to use granules.
Based on the fact that you are in Texas and the description you gave, the multi-legged critter with the stingers on the back end sounds like it could be the Texas Red Headed Centipede (they are venomous) but we can't say for sure without seeing a picture of the insect. You can Google Texas red Headed Centipede to do a comparison if you like.
"This pesticide is extremely toxic to fish and aquatic invertebrates. Do not apply directly to water, to areas where surface water is present or to intertidal areas below the mean high water mark. Drift and run-off from treated areas may be hazardous to aquatic organisms in neighboring areas. Do not contaminate water when disposing of equipment washwaters. Care should be used when spraying to avoid fish and reptile pets in/around ornamental ponds"